Whereas conformity with internalized standards does not fall under the definition of exchange presented, conformity to social pressures tends to entail indirect exchanges.
He reciprocates by his deferential admiration, which is rewarding for the senior. Recall the example we gave in class about the boy who liked a girl more than she him.
At the other extreme is the diffuse social support we derive in a love relationship, the significance of which depends entirely on the individual who supplies it. Eisenstadt, The American Journal of Sociology ix In sociology, not only the explicandum - what we try to explain - but also the explicans - in what terms we explain it - is social Eventually, the marginal advantages for the juniorof associating still more with the senior will no longer outweigh themarginal cost of providing more services for him, and the exchangewill tend to level off.
It is equivalent in social life to credit in economics. The basic principles underlying the conception of exchange may bebriefly summarized. While this could be conceptualized as an exchange of his money for the internal approval of his superego, here again it seems preferable to exclude conformity with internalized norms from the purview of the concept of social exchange.
But it can never be exchanged from handto hand, with the equivalence between the two objects beingdiscussed, bargained about and computed. Opposition movements may arise to promote such adjustment, yet these movements themselves tend to become institutionalized and rigid in the course of time, creating needs for fresh oppositions.
Often, however, social relations are simply treated as characteristics of individuals, no different from their other characteristics p. See Blau, The Dynamics of Bureaucracy 2d ed.
The neighbor is also likely to become less friendly toward an individual who refuses to do favors after he accepts some. The structure of social associations. Traditional institutions stabilize social life but also introduce rigidities that make adjustment to changing conditions difficult.
Marcel Mauss, The Gift, Glencoe: In contrast to economic commodities, the benefits involved in social exchange do not have an exact price in terms of a single quantitative medium of exchange, which is another reason why social obligations are unspecific. For a man's loving admiration to have pronounced effects on her self-image and conduct, however, his estimation of her must be of great significance for her.
The value of ashare in a corporation is not affected by the broker from whom we buyit. Eventually, group norms to regulate and limit the exchange transactions emerge, including the fundamental and ubiquitous norm of reciprocity, which makes failure to discharge obligations subject to group sanctions.
Such political opposition that express the resentment of the oppressed can, however, be derived from a conception of exchange without resort to the assumption that the push of irrational impulses or psychopathic personality traits of drive individuals to become radicals.
Many people reciprocate in order to get these kinds of diffuse social rewards approval for being kind Saints are people who do things without any expectation of reward.
At the other extreme is the diffuse social support we derive in alove relationship, the significance of which depends entirely on theindividual who supplies it. The pervasiveness of social exchangemakes it tempting to consider all social conduct in terms ofexchange, but this would deprive the concept of its distinctivemeaning.
Whether men grant or question the accuracy of an evaluation of themselves governs their reactions to the evaluator See Blau, The Dynamics of Bureaucracy 2d ed. The quality of a social relation is the joint product of both parties, and thus cannot be reduced to a quality of just one person.Sociological Theory.
Sociological Theory Department of Sociology and Anthropology UMD. From Peter Blau, Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley,pp. * FOUR. Social Exchange. The moral type on the other hand is not based on stated terms, but the gift or other service is given as to a friend, although the giver expects to.
In his landmark study of exchange and power in social life, Peter M. Blau contributes to an understanding of social structure by analyzing the social processes that.
Mar 01, · In his landmark study of exchange and power in social life, Peter M. Blau contributes to an understanding of social structure by analyzing the social processes that govern the relations between individuals and groups/5(19). Exchange and power in social life of social profits receive reciprocate requires respect significance social approval social associations social class social exchange social integration social interaction social norms social relations social rewards social solidarity social status social structure society stratum subordinates substructures.
Blau uses concepts of exchange, reciprocity, imbalance, and power to examine social life and to derive the more complex processes in social structure from the simpler ones.5/5(2). p The expectations of people govern the satisfactions they find in social life and hence their reactions to social experiences.
p Power is the resource that permits an individual or group to coordinate the efforts of many others.Download